History of the Great Lakes

Vol. 2 by J.B. Mansfield
Published Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co. 1899

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Captain M.L. Packer, who is now living retired in Cleveland, was born at Elyria, Ohio, in 1842, and began sailing in 1857, going before the mast in the square topsail scow Black Swan, sixty tons burden. These little scows were much in vogue in those early days. In 1859 he was appointed master of the scow Leo, following this by service in other craft of a like description. The wages of masters were about fifteen dollars per month. He then sailed before the mast in some of the small schooners of the A. Bradley fleet, the New London, Wagstaff, J.F. Card and others, after which, in 1866, he purchased the schooner H.C. Post, which he sailed two years, freighting pig iron and stone from Lorain to Cleveland. After disposing of the Post Captain Packer, in 1872, was appointed to the charge of the docks at Lorain, where he continued three years. In the fall of 1881 he assumed command of the schooner C.H. Johnson, and was with the tug Wabash, when the latter schooner was lost on Pictured Rocks, Lake Superior. Captain Packer cut the tow-line and ran into harbor at Grand Island, where the Samson and A.C. King also found shelter. In 1883 Captain Packer was appointed master of the schooner H.C. Maxwell, which was one of the unfortunates in the great storm on Lake Superior in 1885, going ashore at Black’s Point, near Goderich, Ontario. The schooner was adrift five days without rudder, sail or rigging. The hands were taken off by the volunteer life-saving crew at Goderich, under Captain Babb, in a half frozen condition, and through the urgency of Captain Packer and A.A. Pomeroy, the editor of the Marine Record, Captain Babb was presented with a gold life-saving medal by the United States. During the last three years of his service Captain Packer was master of the schooner M.R. Warner, owned by H.J. Johnson. No lives were ever lost under his charge.

In 1864 Captain Packer was married to Miss Ellen Gaffney, of Cleveland, and their union was blessed with seven children, of whom George A. is dead. The living are William Henry; Mortimer L. Jr.; Medora, who is married and living in Chicago; Della M., married; and Maud and Edna, at home. All are doing well in their chosen fields of occupation, and are useful and successful men and women.



Captain William Packer, one of the younger masters on lake crafts, is a son of M. L. and Ellen Packer, and was born in 1865, in Cleveland, Ohio, the public schools of which city he attended until he was fifteen years of age. In the spring of 1880 he shipped on the schooner C. H. Johnson, as boy, and was in the same tow with the schooner Wabash when she struck and went to pieces on the Pictured Rocks, Lake Superior; the entire crew of the Wabash, eight men, was in the cabin up to their necks in water, which was ice-cold, all night. The following season he spent in the John Tibbets, and he subsequently saw service in various boats as seaman until 1884, when he became mate of the A. C. Maxwell. It will be remembered that this vessel went ashore on the Ontario coast, near Goderich, that fall, and that the crew were taken off by Captain Babb, with a volunteer life-saving crew, after they had suffered much hardship from the weather, drifting helplessly without rudder or masts four days and nights.

In 1885 Mr. Packer was appointed mate of the schooner M. R. Warner, remaining in this position two seasons. On one occasion, while he was lying in Ashtabula harbor, the schooner J. F. Joy appeared, displaying signals of distress, and soon went to the bottom of the lake. Captain Packer launched his yawlboat and put out to the distressed vessel, the tugs being unable to reach her on account of so much floating rigging, and he brought off the captain, mate and cook in his first boat load, and returning, took off the crew, consisting of seven men. In 1887 he shipped as second mate on the steamer Henry Johnson, and in the spring of 1888 he was granted master's papers and sailed the schooner M. R. Warner, in 1889 commanding the schooner C. G. King. In 1890 he became master of the schooner Helvetia, in which he remained three seasons. His next boat was the schooner Minnehaha, on which he remained two seasons. On July 2, 1893, while his vessel was lying at dock in Toledo harbor, the Captain went up the river in a small steamer, and seeing three men struggling in the water he buckled on a life-preserver, jumped overboard and swam to them, saving two after a heroic effort; the other was drowned. He reached and succeeded in supporting the two until a small boat picked them up. All three had been leaning against a frail railing on a boat, and it had given way with them.

In the fall of 1895 Captain Packer lost the Minnehaha in a driving snowstorm, the schooner shipping a heavy sea which battered in the hatches, and she filled rapidly, the crew taking to the rigging. Captain Packer took the wheel and beached the schooner near Starkeyville, on the east shore of Lake Michigan. He was cut off from the mizzen-mast when she struck and got on the jigger. When the mast went by the board he jumped, cleared the decks and got hold of a piece of deck plank which assisted him to swim ashore. The vessel soon went to pieces, and the rest of the crew, consisting of six men and a woman cook, were lost. Captain Rafferty was mate and his son a seaman. The body of the cook, Mary Keefe, was picked up next day nineteen miles to the southward. Not withstanding the loss of this boat Captain Packer has retained the confidence of the owners of that class of vessels, and in 1896 he was appointed master of the schooner Nellie Redington, which he laid up in Cleveland harbor at the close of navigation that season.

In 1891 Captain Packer was united in marriage to Miss Emma Emlaeo, of Cleveland, Ohio, and they have one son named Elwell.



BARDWELL, Florella (mother of John Elmer Padden)

John Elmer Padden, one of the popular marine engineers sailing out of Chicago, has, by close study of works on engineering, and the timely application of mechanical principles, become more than usually proficient in his calling. He was born in Edenville, Midland Co., Mich., April 23, 1864, a son of John D. and Florella (Bardwell) Padden. His father was master of lake craft, and well known by some of the older masters of the present day. Among the vessels of which he was commander may be mentioned the schooner Black Hawk, which he brought out new and sailed until he purchased the scow Restless and became its possessor. During the last fifteen years of his active life on the lakes he owned and operated the tugs Onward and Gem on Portage lake. He also owned an interest in the steamer Lew Wallace, of which he was master when she was destroyed by fire in 1893. He retired from the lakes to his home in Onekama, Michigan.

John E. Padden, the subject of this article, acquired his education principally in Arcadia, Mich., where the old family homestead was located, and in 1880 joined his father as fireman on the tug Onward, transferring to the tug Gem, and later to the steamer Gen. Lew Wallace, taking out an engineer's license, and remaining on her until the fall of 1889, when he was appointed second engineer on the steamer Charles Reitz. In the spring of 1890 he joined the steamer Mark B. Covell as second engineer, holding that office two seasons. The next spring he helped fit out the steamer W.J. Carter as second engineer, and remained with her until July, then passed one month on the Edward Buckley and closed the season on the new steamer W.B. Ketcham, holding that berth three seasons. In the spring of 1896 Mr. Padden entered the employ of the Hines Lumber Company as chief engineer of the steamer S.K. Martin, holding that berth until the spring of 1898, when he was transferred as chief engineer to the steamer Santa Maria (a new purchase of the firm, and sailed by Capt. Walter D. Hamilton), an office he held for the remainder of the season.

Socially Mr. Padden is a Royal Arch Mason, of Corinthian Chapter No. 69, of Chicago; and a member of the Marine Engineers Beneficial Association No. 44, of Manistee, Michigan.



John M. Palmatier, at present chief engineer of the Wagner Palace Car Works, on Broadway, Buffalo, was born in the year 1848 at Esperance, Schoharie Co., N.Y., a son of Isaac R. and Lydia A. (Purtell) Palmatier. The father was born in the same town in 1818, and was a brickmason by trade. The mother was born in 1825, in New Rochelle, Westchester Co., New York.

Our subject began his seafaring life as first assistant engineer on the Ocean King, a wrecker in New York harbor and vicinity, and in 1886 he was made chief engineer of the same steamer. Subsequently he was chief engineer on the steamyacht Sappho, and also of the Elfrieda, but in the meantime he was for thirteen years with the New York Central Railroad Company, serving his time as machinist, locomotive fireman and engineer on that railroad. In 1886 he was made chief engineer of the Wagner Palace Company, of Buffalo, N.Y., which position he still retains. He keeps his engineer's papers renewed from time to time, but has sailed in no other capacity than above stated.

Mr. Palmatier was married in 1871, to Mary L. Everett, of Chatham, Columbiana Co., N.Y., and they have two daughters: Eva L., born February 14, 1876, and Carrie L., born September 6, 1879.

Mr. Palmatier is a member of the Marine Engineers Beneficial Association No. 1, Buffalo, N.Y., and of the National Association of Stationary Engineers. Fraternally, he affiliates with the I.O.O.F., Northern Light No. 729, and of Mt. Zion Encampment No. 17, also of Iowa, Rebekah degree No. 118, and has taken a very active part in Odd Fellowship for 25 years. In addition to the above, he is a member of the A.O.U.W., Washington Lodge No. 83, and is a past master workman.



The firm of Parker & Millen, was well-known marine insurance men, was organized in 1880, the members of the firm being Aaron A. Parker, Capt. James W. Millen and Byron W. Barker. The firm does business for the following companies, all of who insure hulls and cargoes: Western Assurance Co., of Toronto; Indemnity Mutual Marine Assn. Co., of London; Insurance Company of North America, of Philadelphia; St. Paul Fire and Marine Ins. Co., of St. Paul; British Foreign Marine Insurance Co., of Liverpool; Detroit Fire and Marine, of Detroit; Greenwich, of New York; Lloyds of London, and World Marine, of London.

The line of risks carried each season by Parker & Mullen is probably the largest carried by any single office on the lakes, their premiums now amounting to upwards of $100,000 annually. Starting in the vessel in which the partners themselves were interested, the business has been gradually extended until it has reached its splendid proportions. Nearly all the insurance carried is of a stable character, being renewed each year by the owners.

About ten years ago the firm also engaged in the wrecking business, and are now managers of the Swain Wrecking Company, at the Straits, wrecker Favorite, also the Isaac Watt and Westcott Wrecking companies, in Detroit river vicinity. This later control the wrecking tugs Saginaw, Wales, Balize and Onaping, together with the necessary outfit of pumps, jacks and other wrecking machinery.

The members of this firm are heavily interested in vessel property, including freight and passenger steamers, and between them they manage a dozen different lines. They also control the dock property, and on each side of Griswold street, where handsome brick buildings have been erected, that on the west side of the street now being used by the United States appraiser of that port.

They also have one of the largest fire insurance agencies in Detroit, representing the following companies: Scottish Union & National of Edinburgh; Northern of England; Niagara Fire of New York; Cooper of Ohio; Caledonian of Edinburgh; Fireman's Friend of California; Fire Association of Philadelphia; Lion of London, and Queen of America.



Probably the most extensive manager of vessel property in Detroit is Aaron A. Parker, of the firm of Parker & Millen. At the elections held by the various Detroit companies in 1898, he was voted in to the following positions: treasurer and manager of the Buffalo & Duluth Transportation Co., propeller B.W. Blanchard carrying package freight between Toledo and Buffalo; secretary and genera manager of the State Transit Company, propeller John Pridgeon, Jr., operating in the "Soo" line; president and general manager of the Peninsular Transit Company, propeller John Oades, carrying freight between Lake Superior and Lake Erie ports; secretary and general manager of the Swain Wrecking Company, wrecker Favorite and wrecking outfit; president and general manager of the Parker Transportation Company, schooners Red Wing and San Diego; president of the Red Star line, steamer Greyhound; president of the White Star line, steamer City of Toledo; secretary and manager of the Pridgeon Transit Company, steamer A.A. Parker and barge W.B. Parker, carrying coarse freight; president and manager of Isaac Watt Wrecking Company, tug Saginaw; treasurer Tashmoo Park Company; secretary Star Dockage and Warehouse Co., Limited.

Mr. Parker's success in life is one of many instances seen in America of what energy and enterprise accompanied with a well directed effort will accomplish. Born on a farm in the little town of Hamburg, N.Y., near Buffalo, he remained at home long enough to acquire a fair education, and at the age of seventeen started for the oil fields of Pennsylvania which were then attracting so much attention. In company with five others, two young and three elderly men, a claim was bought and a drill set at work. They struck oil July 7, 1861, and in 1864 young Parker's income was $170.00 per day. He sold his interest in one well for $20,000 and put the money in the bank, although not yet of age. During the six years he remained in the oil country he made about $60,000, but during the latter part of his stay his investments were not profitable, and taking what money he had left he came to Detroit in 1867. Here he went into business with Byron Whitaker and made his first investment in vessel property, buying the brig Concord and the schooner Courtland. These vessels were operated for three or four years, and the firm also did a general forwarding business. During this time they built a mill for cutting hardwood lumber near Connor's Creek, and later when one of the vessels was lost, Mr. Whitaker took the remaining one. Mr. Parker the mill, and they separated. He ran the mill for about four years and then sold it, engaging in the handling of Connellsville coke.

In 1876 Mr. Parker went into the vessel business again, this time to stay, where he associated his brother, Byron W. Parker, who took an equal interest in all business enterprises. They bought the old schooner Eagle Wing, and later on the schooner Columbia, a larger and better vessel. Later on two other schooners were added, and in 1880 he bought the steamer Annie Smith, to tow his schooners, which were engaged in the ore, grain and coal trade; all these purchases were made possible by John Pridgeon, who loaned them large sums of money and who was ever ready to stand back of them in any enterprise. In the same year they formed a partnership with Capt. James W. Millen, under the firm name of Parker & Millen, insurance and vessel agents. Since that time they have been part owners of the Minneapolis, the B.W. Blanchard, the B.W. Parker and the A.A. Parker, besides owning stock in several other vessels.



Clarence L. Parker has only been employed as a vessel agent since 1896, but he has spent several years in lumbering, shipping and general marine work, so that his knowledge in that line is ripe, notwithstanding he is still a young man. Mr. Parker was born February 14, 1870, at Hallsport, N. Y., and came to Au Sable, Mich., in 1880, soon afterward finding employment there at tallying lumber. After four years he became inspector, continuing for two years in that position, after which he opened a lumber-shipping and inspecting business in his own name. In 1891 bought an interest in the Richard Martini, which runs from Lake Huron and Georgian Bay ports, and he has retained it up to the present time. Being so closely connected with this line of work he established the vessel agency in 1896, now handling several schooners and barges.

Mr. Parker was married December 23, 1891, to Miss Anna E. Forsyth, of Hallsport, N. Y. Their only child, Norma E., was born in 1895. Mr. Parker is the son of Lorenzo D. and Mary E. (Van Stan) Parker, natives of New York State, the former of whom died in 1874; the latter resides in Detroit.



Captain H.F. Parker, a well-known vesselmaster of Cleveland, Ohio, gained his first sailing experience on the ocean. He was born in Northampton, England, in 1841, the son of Capt. J. T. Parker, who was an ocean navigator for many years, and began sailing at the age of fourteen. Before coming to the lakes he saw service on the schooners Potomac and Rhoda, the C. J. Kershaw, a Cleveland-built vessel, the ship Spark of the Ocean, the bark Traveler, the ship Lammergeyer and the packet ship Western Empire, in these vessels visiting Queenstown, London, Leeds, Rio Grande (Brazil), Melbourne, Sydney, New Zealand and Hong Kong; the East Indies, Madras, Calcutta; New Orleans, Boston and many other parts of the world. The family had removed to the United States when he was very young, and settled in Buffalo, and in 1860 he began sailing out of that port in the schooner Augusta. Soon after he joined the schooner Alice Curtiss for an ocean voyage, touching at Mobile, where he joined the ship Express, of Boston, for a trip to Havre, France. Returning to the United States he made his way up the Mississippi river to the lakes, where he joined the schooner Ravenna for another ocean voyage, this time going to Liverpool. Following this he served in a small bark that made several ocean voyages, and finally returned to the lakes, holding berths on the barks Sunnyside and Golden West, the brig Bay City, the North West, Sunrise, R. E. Hart, May Collins, San Jacinto, Empire, W. O. Brown, David Ferguson, Turk, Mary B. Hale, Minerva, Topsy, Oneonta, Erastus Corning, Canopus and William Treat. Then he became mate of the Major Anderson, and, later, master of the N. P. Goodell, mate of the brig C. P. Williams, second mate of the Bahama and St. Lawrence, and mate of the G. G. Norris, David Tod and James Carroll. He has since been master of the Butcher Boy two years, the H. G. Cleveland three years, the James Couch one season, the Erastus Corning four seasons, and the Joseph G. Masters six seasons. Captain Parker has also commanded the Quayle and the Adriatic one season each. He has sailed on every sea and visited every prominent port in the world, and has never had a vessel ashore.

The Captain was married, in 1862, to Miss Sarah Boyle, of Ashtabula, Ohio. They have two children - John Thomas and Margaret Ann.



Captain Orlando J. Parker, whose life as a mariner covers a period of fifty years, was a patriot of the way of the Rebellion, and served with honor in the infantry, artillery and navy. He is a son of Salmon and Eliza (Scofield) Parker, and was born in Onondaga county, N.Y., March 4, 1835, his ancestors being purely American for many generation. His father was a native of New York, and mother of Stamford, Conn. The family removed to Rochester where the father took command of an Erie packet, and later going to Granby, Oswego county, N.Y., where he died in 1848, leaving a widow and three sons; Joseph P., at one time mate of the schooner Chicago Board of Trade, and later sailing on Lake Ponchartrain; Lewis B., a citizen of Webster, Wayne country, N.Y., and a veteran of Company K, Fifth New York Calvary; and Orlando J., the subject of this sketch. The mother died in Way county, Mich, in 1882.

When but fourteen years of age Orlando left home and secured a berth on a canal boat as bowsman, and went with her to New York City, where she was laid up, all hands being paid off. He then shipped as a cook on the schooner Rio Grande, engaged in the coasting trade on the Atlantic ocean. After his first month's experience he ran away from the schooner and returned home, where he remained all summer, too ill to be about. In 1850 he accompanied his mother to Sumpter, Mich., thence to Monroe, Mich., where he was employed as a fisherman. While in this employ he met a salt-water sailor, who prevailed upon him to ship as a sailor again, and then went on board to the old schooner Cambria and turned in, and after two months in this schooner he returned home. In 1852 he shipped on the brig Hampton, of the White Diamond Line, with Captain Davis, and after five months joined the brig Acadia. He passed the next season on the schooner Pierrepoint, Captain Jenkins; brig Mariner, Capt. R. Hackett, and the schooner Andrew J. Rich. In the spring of 1854 he was appointed mate of the schooner Winslow, and after two trips transferred to the Jessie Woods. The next season he sailed as mate on the bark Ocean Wave, and before the mast on the schooner S. J. Hawley, with Capt. B. Hayes. In the spring of 1856 he came out as second mate on the brig William Lewis, and after five months shipped on the schooner H.E. Muzzie. His next berth was on the schooner Titan of the Red Bird line, with Captain Robinson, closing the season on the schooner Hampton. In 1858 he was appointed second mate of the schooner Comanche, and the following season served as second mate and mate of the schooner Grace Murray, filling this position until December, when he made a last trip for the season on the bark Danube. In the spring of 1860 he shipped before the mast on the new schooner Virginia, but closed the season on the S.J. Hawley; in 1861 was on the brig William Treat, the largest vessel sailing the lakes, closing the season on the schooner Jamaica, which reached Oswego December 13, with a cargo of wheat, the freight on which was 27 cents per bushel.

In the spring of 1862 Captain Parker came out as second mate on the brig William Lewis, but on August 10th he resigned, and on the 13th enlisted on the One Hundred and Forty-seventh New York Volunteer Infantry, and with his regiment participated in many hotly-contested battles, among them being that of Fredericksburg. He was then transferred to the First New York Light Artillery, and was in the battles of Chancellorsville, Burton Station, and the three days' fighting at Gettysburg, and as No. 4 of No. 1 gun, first section, had the honor of firing the first piece of field artillery that opened the great artillery duel on July 3. Early in 1864 Captain Parker was transferred to the United States navy, going on board the receiving ship North Carolina, where he remained three weeks, when he was consigned to the cruiser Merrimac, a former Rebel blockade runner. He was a side-wheel steamer, brigantine rigged, and capable of making a speed of fourteen knots an hour. She carried four 24-pound guns, a 30-pound Parrot on the forecastle, and a 12-pound Dahlgren as a stern chaser, Mr. Parker being in charge of the last mentioned gun. She was stationed with the Gulf squadron at Key West, and cruised about the West Indies and Yucatan.

Captain Parker was promoted to the office of quartermaster, and when a Rebel schooner was captured he carried her to Key West as a prize master. On one occasion he was sent with a boat's crew to Tampa bay for a load of fat pine, where he contracted yellow fever, but recovered after six weeks and was sent to Havana. From here he cruised with Commander Budd to New York, the banks of Newfoundland, Rockland, Maine, and finally to Portsmouth navy yard, where he remained four months. In February, 1865, the Merrimac started on a winter cruise, and on the 14th she ran into a norther, when the tiller parted, she sprung a leak, which put the fires out, and she lay exposed to the furies of the storm. Soon, however, the mail steamer Morning Star came along and took off all hands, and the Merrimac when down to Davy Jones' locker. The Morning Star put in at Port Royal, where the blue jackets were put on board the receiving ship Maine and sent to New York. Captain Parker reported his time out, was honorably discharged and returned home.

In taking up his life on the lakes again in the fall of 1865, Captain Parker was appointed second mate on the schooner Comanche. At the close of navigation he went to Sumpter, Mich., and bought forty acres of land, upon which he built a house, and in the spring of 1866 shipped as second mate on the schooner A.H. Moss. The next year he took up his residence at Grand Rapids, and in 1868 shipped on the tug W. Mary for the season. During 1869-70 he was city marshal of Dowagiac, and in 1871-72 ran the engine in the steam sawmill of Fred Hedrich; and the next three years he acted as night policeman. In 1881 he again returned to Grand Haven and was employed in the freight house until 1883, when he applied for a license and was appointed mate of the steamer Milwaukee; in 1884, mate of the steamer Swallow, closing the season on the Hickox; 1885, mate of the steamer City of New York, with Capt. Neil Chatterton; 1886, second mate of the steamer Depere, with Captain Raleigh, remaining with him five months, when he met with an accident and was laid up the balance of the season. In the spring of 1887 he came out as second mate on the steamer Shrigley, closing on the Mary Groh as mate, and in 1888 acted as mate on the steamer William Edwards, closing the season on the Charles Street; during 1889 was made master of the tug Stewart Edward, remaining on her until September, when he took charge of the lightship on the White shoal. In the spring of 1890 Captain Parker came out as mate of the steamer C.H. Starke, but after three months he was made master and sailed her until the close of navigation. The next year he came out as mate of the Berrien, but was promoted to master, and the next season was made second mate of the passenger steamer City of Racine. He then entered the employ of the Goodrich Transportation Company, as first mate of the steamer Atlanta, and remained in the employ of the company five years. In the spring of 1898 he was appointed second mate of the steamer Minnesota of the Inter Ocean Transportation Company, and during the season of 1898 served as second mate on the steamer Kalamazoo, chartered by the Crosby Company. He was fifteen issues of master's license.

Socially, the Captain is a Master Mason of Grand Haven Lodge No. 139, and a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, Wetherwax Post No. 75, Department of Michigan.

On December 1, 1854, Capt. Orlando Parker was wedded to Miss Zilpha Farnham, of Oswego, Oswego Co., N.Y. The children born to this union are Mary E., now the wife of A.C. Merrill, who keeps a popular hotel at Sioux City, Iowa; Edward E., chief engineer of the yacht Sam Allerton, plying in Lake Geneva, and who espoused Miss Elizabeth M. Fair, of Chicago; Byron F., who died in 1875; and Nellie M., a graduate of Grand Haven high school, and of the Teachers Institute, Iowa, from which she holds a second-grade certificate. The family homestead is on the corner of Third and Clinton streets, Grand Haven, Michigan.



Eugene Passano is one of the prominent engineers sailing out of the port of Toledo, and one who is well qualified for the duties of his responsible position, having, at this writing, charge of the machinery of the fine passenger and pleasure steamer F.S. Sterling. He is a son of Rany and Olive (Porria) Passano, the former of whom, a man of considerable substance, was supervisor of Chippewa Island. His grandfather took a prominent part in the war of 1812, during which he was taken prisoner. His paternal grandmother passed quietly away in May, 1896, while sitting at the table with her daughter. She had reached the ripe old age of 101 years. The family is of French descent.

Eugene Passano was born in Toledo, Ohio, April 14, 1857, and obtained his education in the public schools of his native city. In the spring of 1874 he turned toward the lakes for employment, and shipped as fireman on the Anchor line steamer J.H. Prindiville, remaining three seasons in that berth. In the spring of 1877 he went tugging, shipping in Buffalo on the Orient, which one day struck the pier so violently that she sunk, and Mr. Passano was so seriously scalded by the escaping steam that he lay in the marine hospital eight months. Soon after his recovery he went to Cleveland, where he fired on the tugs Babcock and G.W. Gardner, and later, in Toledo, he was on the tugs Col. Davis and A. Andrews in the same capacity, thus covering a period of five years in this occupation. In the spring of 1882 Mr. Passano took out his marine engineer's license and was appointed to the tug J.R. Earnest as chief, transferring the next season to the tug Maggie Ashley, also as chief. In 1884 he shipped on the H.C. Schnoor. While laboring in a gale of wind with two barges in two, she rolled her spars out and the mate proposed to cut the barges adrift, but Engineer Passono(sic), who is a determined man, would not permit him to do so, saying that it was contemptible to give the crews up to almost certain death when there was good prospect of saving them. The tow-line was not cut. The next spring he was appointed chief engineer of the Wabash line steamer A.L. Hopkins, finishing the season on the excursion steamer F.S. Sterling. In 1886 he took charge of the machinery of the tug Mary A. Green, and the next season shipped on the steamer Douglas, on which he remained three years. In the spring of 1890 he was appointed chief engineer of the steambarge Ohio; in 1891, chief of the steambarge Ida M. Torrence, holding that berth two seasons; in 1893, chief engineer of the F.C. Schenck, then the most powerful tug on the lakes; in 1894, chief of the steamer Desmond, of Cleveland; in 1895, chief of the steamer Douglas, holding that berth eighteen months and finishing the season of 1896 as chief of the steamer F.S. Sterling. In the spring of 1897 he fitted out the steamer Douglas, but as she was laid up early he took out the excursion steamer F.S. Sterling, of which he is now chief engineer. He is a member of the Marine Engineers Beneficial Association and of the Stationary Engineers Association.

Mr. Passano wedded Miss Minnie Cordukes, of Port Huron, Mich., in the year 1879. The family residence is at No. 619 Magnolia street, Toledo, Ohio.



Captain William Patterson was for many years a shipmaster of prominence on the Great Lakes, but at the present time he has withdrawn from marine work and is engaged in business with Van de Boe, Hager & Co., who are probably the largest real-estate, sub-dividers in the world. The Captain was born October 14, 1857, at Picton, Ont., and spent all the early years of his life at his native place. When a lad of fifteen he sailed on the Bay of Quinte as boy on the H. N. Todman, and on several other schooners owned by his father, William Patterson. At the age of eighteen years he left the bay and came to the lakes, first shipping as man before the mast on the William Crosthwaite, where he remained part of a season. He then acted as mate on the Flying Mist, and after laying her up at Chicago, came on the M. E. Tremble, before the mast. He spent two years as seaman, second mate and mate upon the Camden, and then began steamboating as wheelsman on the Selah Chamberlin. In the seasons following he acted as second mate and mate on the schooners Richard Mott, J. H. Mead, Potomac, Lucinda Van Valkenberg, Moonlight, Porter, Lucern and Marengo, after which he accepted a position as officer in the prison at Portsmouth, where he continued for some time. In 1880 he went to Manitoba, where he remained until October, 1881, during the boom of the Canadian Pacific, and then returning to the water he took command of the John Gaskin, upon which he remained two years. The next season he served on the J. H. Boody in the same capacity, and in the succeeding seasons sailed the S. L. Watson, the schooner North West, and in 1895 the steamer Australasia.

Captain Patterson was married January 21, 1881, to Miss Annie Morton, daughter of the Hon. James Morton, of Kingston, Ont., and they have two children, Margaret and Helen, both of whom are in school, the elder receiving instruction at an Ursuline convent. The Captain’s parents, William and Mary (Mulholland) Patterson, were both born in Ireland, the father coming to the United States in 1846. He spent about twenty years of his life as a salt water navigator, and since 1865 has sailed the Great Lakes, being still engaged in marine work at Bay City. The mother departed this life in March, 1879.



Henry G. Payne, one of the prominent and representative marine men of Chicago, is now chief engineer for the Crane Manufacturing Company, in whose employ he has been since 1891. He was born in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1849, a son of George and Mary Ann (Deacon) Payne. The father who was also a native of Buffalo and a boilermaker by trade, died in that city in 1863, and the mother passed away in 1897. Our subject was reared and educated in his native city, and there learned the machinist’s trade in early life.

Mr. Payne began his marine career by sailing from Buffalo in 1872 as oiler on the propeller Java, where he remained one season, and the spring of 1873 became second engineer on the steambarge William T. Graves, which was lost in 1888. After eighteen months in that vessel, he entered the employ of the Union Steamboat Company as second engineer, and for three years of the eight spent in their service he was chief, sailing from Buffalo to Chicago. He was next with the Winslow Steamship Company on the steambarge Cumberland, and later on the City of Rome for two years, being chief engineer of that vessel for one year, and sailing out of Cleveland. On leaving the City of Rome he became connected with the Red Star line as engineer, and was with them for three years; was with the L. M. & L. S. Co. for two years as chief of steamer City of Traverse, and quit their employ to accept a position with the North Chicago Street Railway Company as watch engineer. This position being too confining, he in the summer of 1889 accepted that of chief on the Langell steamer Kaliyuga. During the season of 1890 he was in charge of the Robert Mills, continuing in this capacityuntil he again, entered the employ of the North Chicago Street Railway Company, when he later on entered the employ of the Crane Manufacturing Company, with which he has since been connected, giving entire satisfaction to all concerned.

Mr. Payne is one of the most prominent and honored members of the Marine Engineers Beneficial Association No. 4; was elected national president in 1886, and was past national president during the convention in 1887. He was a charter member of Buffalo Lodge No. 1, with which he continued to hold membership until admitted to Chicago Lodge in 1897. He also belongsto the Chicago Masonic Council of Stationary Engineers.

In Buffalo, N. Y., in 1873, Mr. Payne was married to Miss Lida E. Watts, a native of that city, and a daughter of Capt. Harry Watts, an early navigator on the lakes, who removed from Buffalo to Gibson City, Ill., where he now resides. Mr. and Mrs. Payne make their home at No. 1991 West Adams street, Chicago.



Captain John J. Pearson went on the lakes at the age of twelve years as second porter on the Lake Breeze. He was born in Birmingham, England, August 8, 1868, and in 1873 came to this country with his father, Richard Pearson, who is still living in Parsons, W. Va., engaged in the lumber business. The Captain lived in Au Sable, Mich., until he commenced sailing. For several years following 1880 he was before the mast on different lake vessels until 1891, when he became mate on the Atlantic. In 1892 he was given command of the Flora, on which he remained one season, transferring from this boat to the Atlantic and the Champion, and sailing them the following seasons. He then came on the State of Michigan, in command of which he has since been retained. Captain Pearson is a young man for such a responsible position, but his fortunate experience on the water has given his employers the greatest confidence in him and he has every prospect of a brilliant career.

Captain Pearson was married, November 24, 1886, to Miss Luella V. Edgar, whose father, Andrew K. Edgar, was one of the pioneers of Alcona county, Mich.; he died in 1881. The Captain and his wife have two children: Armand J., born May 11, 1888; and Lois Mabelle, born January 17, 1890.



Captain E.M. Peck (deceased) was better known as a shipbuilder than a vessel master, although he was a thoroughly competent navigator, and commanded his own boat, the Fountain City, for four years.

Captain Peck was born in Otsego county, N. Y., in 1822, and in early life learned the trade of a ship carpenter, working at it for a number of years. Later on he removed to Cleveland and engaged in shipbuilding on his own account. While here he designed and put onto the lakes not less than one hundred steam and sailing vessels, many of them being actively engaged on the lakes at the time of his death. Among the vessels that he designed and built were the barks Naomi, Sunrise, Golden Fleece, Unadilla, C. P. Sherman, Daniel Stewart, and North West; the steamers Fountain City, Evergreen City, Idaho, Winslow, Meteor, Pewabic, St. Louis, R. J. Hackett and Forest City; the tugs E. M. Peck, Metamora and I. U. Masters; and the two revenue cutters Fessenden and Sherman.

Early in the 'seventies he left the shipbuilding business and organized the Northwestern Transportation Company, which operated a big line across Lake Michigan for both freight and passenger business. This company built the steamer Amazon, at that time the largest steamer on the lakes, and propelled by the first twin-screw used on fresh water. About this time Captain Peck made an innovation in the ore-carrying trade, which has since been followed to advantage by many vessel men. He towed the schooner Forest City, as consort to the steamer R. J. Hackett, loaded with ore, down through all the Great Lakes to Ashtabula from the Lake Superior mines. Prior to that time the product of Upper Peninsula mines had been moved in schooners and small barks, and the plan of towing by a steambarge worked a revolution in the methods of this particular line of lake traffic.

In 1845 Captain Peck was married to Susan E. Rogers, of Cleveland, Ohio. They had two children - one son and one daughter - both of whom died young. Captain Peck died May 8, 1896, after a brief illness lasting about ten days. Indeed he was actively attending to business affairs within a very short time of his death. When his death was announced suitable action was taken by local vessel men, and at the conclusion of the funeral ceremonies in Detroit his body was placed aboard his own steamer, the E. M. Peck, transported to Cleveland, and interred in Lakeview Cemetery.

Somewhat brusque in his manner, and not easily approached, Captain Peck was nevertheless a man of most kindly instincts, and of a very charitable disposition, as those who got to know him intimately soon discovered. His death was deeply felt by every vessel man to whom he was known. Captain Peck did his first work in the employ of Philo Moses, of Cleveland, upon the first boat sailing on Lake Superior in the interest of the Hudson Bay Fur Company. The timbers were framed in Cleveland, and taken by boat to the "Soo," then hauled by team across the land to the foot of Lake Superior, it being the first boat of importance on that lake.



Roy Lee Peck is a born engineer, inheriting his mechanical genius from his father, Richard W. Peck, who was a marine engineer on the Atlantic ocean for many years. Among the notable steamers that the father engineered was the old Charles Benton, plying between New York and North Carolina ports, being chief in her when she was destroyed by fire. He was also chief of the Cleopatra and Leo, of the Murray & Ferris Steamship line, between New York and Savannah; chief of the City of Merida, City of Havana, City of New York, City of Vera Cruz, City of Washington and City of Pueblo, all of the Alexandre Steamship line, between New York and Mexican ports, his brother Frank taking his place as he was transferred from one steamer to another.

The father retired from the merchant marine service, and went to live on his old homestead farm in Rockland county, N.Y., although he was called upon from time to time by the contractors and engine builders to bring out government warships for their trial trips, and especially was he in demand by the Quintard Iron Works, for which company he brought out the armored cruisers Concord, Bennington and Maine; and for the Columbian Iron Works he conducted the trial trips of the warships Baltimore, Montgomery, Detroit, Bancroft and Marblehead. He came up on the lakes in behalf of the builders with the engines of the steamers North West and North Land, of the Northern Steamship Company, running the North West the first season. He also designed her feed pumps, which are of extra good utility. He was born in Lyme, Conn., and his wife, who bore the maiden name of Miss Ellen E. Crosby, was born in Wells River, Vermont.

Roy Lee Peck, the subject of this article, was born in Deep River, Middlesex Co., Conn., December 3, 1863, and although but thirty-five years of age is chief engineer of one of the finest steamers on the lakes, the Manitou. His brother Allan also inherits some of the mechanical genius of his father, and is in charge of the machinery of a large factory in Irvington, Conn. Our subject is a graduate of the high school of Brooklyn, N.Y., and in 1879 was apprenticed to the Washington Iron Works, which made a specialty of building and repairing marine engines. He remained with that concern three years and gained a thorough knowledge of the business, as far as construction was concerned. In 1882 he went to sea with his uncle Frank Peck in the steamer City of Washington, as oiler, remaining a few months. He then shipped in the steamer Louisiana, of the Cromwell line, plying to New Orleans, and after eighteen months was advanced to the position of third assistant, and before the close of the year was promoted to second assistant, holding that office two years. In 1885 he was transferred to the steamer Chalmette, of the Morgan line, as second assistant. In 1887 he became first assistant of the steamer City of Atlanta, and after two months was appointed chief engineer and ran her the balance of the year. He then came to the lakes and brought out new the steamer Owego for the Union Steamboat Company, as chief, running her two seasons. He next took charge of the Phoenix flouring-mill machinery at Milwaukee, but soon returned to the lakes, having accepted an appointment as chief engineer of the Lehigh Valley steamer Cayuga. The next season he entered the employ of the Minnesota Steamship Company as chief of the Mariska, transferring to the Kearsage at the end of the second season, bringing her out new.

In the spring of 1895 Mr. Peck was appointed chief engineer of the Lake Michigan & Lake Superior Transportation Co., having immediate charge of the engines of the steamer Manitou during her running season, at other times laying up, looking after repairs and fitting out the other steamers of the line. It will be observed that during the entire period that Mr. Peck has been engaged on the lakes he has had charge, as chief engineer, of steamers of the first class, and has given eminent satisfaction in all cases. He is one of those officers who attend to their machinery first, and when that is in good condition he enjoys his leisure. Socially he was a member of the Marine Engineers Beneficial Association of New York City No. 50, and afterward joined No. 2, and serving as president of Cleveland Lodge No. 2 one term, at the expiration of which that body presented him with a handsome gold watchcharm.

On May 17, 1886, Mr. Peck married Miss Annie, daughter of Thomas and Mary (Byrnes) Behen, of New Orleans, and the children born to this union are: Annie M.; Roy Lee, Jr.; Esther M. and Helen M. Mrs. Peck's father was a native of Lowell, Mass., and sailed some, attaining to the position of mate. He died in Basthrop, La., in 1875. Her mother was born in Limerick, Ireland. Our subject's paternal grandparents were George and Elizabeth (Lee) Peck, the former being a descendant of the colonist of the name who came to America in the Mayflower. Mr. Peck and his family make their home at No. 8,000 Exchange avenue, Chicago.



Captain Charles K. Pederson, master and controlling owner of the towbarge Commodore, is a native of Norway, born in 1857. He is one of the family of eight children born to Peter and Mary (Knudson) Larson, only three of whom are sailors; Peter is a shipcarpenter on an ocean vessel, and Ole has been boatswain on the ocean ship Sarah Swigfield for over five years. The father was a carpenter by occupation; the mother still resides in Norway.

Before making his permanent home in the United States Captain Pederson was on salt water for about eleven years, and during that time he was wrecked once, about fifty miles from the Bermudas. He began sailing when he was but twelve years old, shipping out of Christiansand on the Norwegian ship Hooray, on which he remained about two and a half seasons, visiting the ports of Rio de Janeiro, San Francisco, Trieste (Austria), Pernambuco and Philadelphia. The succeeding three years he was on a voyage around various foreign ports aboard the Norwegian ship Henri Nicoli Knudson, and for the remainder of the time until he came to the lakes he was on American ships out of New York harbor. His first experience on fresh water was in mate's berth on the brig Mariner, on which he continued thus for two seasons, following with three seasons as her master. He was next master of the towbarge Henry W. Hoag two seasons, and then of the Chester B. Jones five successive seasons. From the beginning of 1892 he has been master of the towbarge Commodore, she and the Chester B. Jones being consorts of the steambarge P. H. Birckhead. Captain Pederson has never lost a vessel, but while master of the brig Mariner he had a thrilling experience endeavoring to reach Buffalo harbor in a gale that blew from seventy-six to eighty miles an hour, after being dropped by the steamer Benton, which was towing the Marine, and the Henry W. Hoag. This occurrence was on October 9, 1885. The Mariner was the sailing vessel in the tow, and on the trip down parted her line ten miles off Rondeau Point. With the exception of her foresail and staysail her canvas was soon blown away and her yawl smashed to pieces. The mate had left at Tawas, and Captain Pederson had with him but four sailors; but in spite of all these disadvantages he made his way under the Buffalo breakwater thirty-six hours ahead of the Benton, the Hoag having been lost in the meantime. The gale was so terrific that the breakwater was partly washed away, and the schooner Hutchinson went to pieces in the sea about five miles from Buffalo harbor.

Captain Pederson was married in 1885, at East Saginaw, Mich., to Miss Louisa Bierman, by whom he has one child, named Annie. They reside at No. 241 Morgan street, Tonawanda, New York.



Captain John Peil, master of the three-masted schooner Apprentice Boy, and the owner of that vessel as well as of other lake property, has sailed on the lakes ever since he came to Chicago in 1867, over thirty-one years ago. It might be said that the Captain was raised on the water. He went before the mast when only thirteen years of age, and his father before him was a seafaring man.

Captain Peil was born in Hanover, Germany, in 1843, the son of Capt. Frederick and Gertrude (Miller) Peil. The father was also a native of Germany, and in his youth went before the mast. Later he became master of an ocean vessel, and sailed for many years. After leaving the sea Captain Frederick Peil entered the service of the German government and there remained until his death in 1894. His widow still survives. Our subject was reared in his native land, and when thirteen years old shipped on a German line of boats. He sailed from Hamburg and from Bremen for a number of years, then came to New York and for five years sailed from that port. He was in the East India service for two years, sailing on the coast of China and making all ports. His ocean experiences include service aboard one vessel which was lost in the North Sea.

In 1867 Captail Peil came to Chicago, and since then he has followed the lakes contin-uously. On the lakes he first shipped aboard the schooner Lookout, then sailed on various vessels in different capacities until in 1875 be became master of the schooner Crawford. Four years later he sailed the schooner Westchester, which he commanded for two seasons, then in 1881 he became master of the schooner Cape Horn, owned at Muskegon. For eight years he sailed this schooner, then in 1889 he purchased from Captain Kirby, of Grand Haven, Mich., the schooner Apprentice Boy, which he has since sailed. Captain Peil is also half-owner of the schooner Julia B. Merrill.

In 1871 he was married at Chicago to Miss Anna Platt, who is a native of Germany. Mrs. Peil has sailed with Captain for the past sixteen years, and is thoroughly acquainted with the various ports of the Great Lakes. To Captain and Mrs. Peil have been born three sons: Edward (now mate on the Apprentice Boy), John and George. Captain Peil is a prominent member of Covenant Lodge No. 526, F. & A. M., and has been a resident of the Seventh ward of Chicago for the past twenty-six years. He is one of the well-known and prominent vesselmen of that city.



Captain C.A. Peltier was born December 25, 1829, at Detroit, where he has always lived. He has had a wide experience in marine work, and in the different branches of that occupation he has acquired an extensive knowledge, and is known as a thoroughly competent shipmaster. His career has been exceedingly fortunate, he never having suffered shipwreck, thus winning credit for himself and profit for his employers.

After attending school until his twelfth year, he shipped in the schooner Swan, Captain Berkley, and there acted as cook three months. Upon leaving this boat he went on the Two Brothers, owned by Larned Bros. of Sandusky, and acted as cook until the close of the season. The next year he went as mate on the scow Petrel, owned at Lexington, Mich., and then went with Captain Stringleman, on the brig Crispin, after which he went with the same captain to the brig Shakespeare, where he remained several years, finally becoming mate. He then went on the Nucleus, and remained on her as second mate two seasons, with Captain Stringleman, after which he entered the employ of Nicholas & Whitcomb, of Detroit. They had recently purchased the brig Shakespeare, and to it he returned as mate, remaining throughout one season. In 1854 he took command of the Crevolia, and sailed her three seasons, after which he went on the brig Roscius, and remained two seasons in her employ; but the boat being purchased by William Brewster of Chicago, he was retained as master, and sailed her until 1867. He then came to Detroit and entered Whitacre's employ, going on the Concord one season, after which he sailed the Petrel for five years, when he next superintended the building of the B. W. Jenness and brought her out new, remaining on her nineteen years as master. After two years on the steambarge Michigan, he sailed the Germania five years, for McLaren & Sprague, of Toledo, Ohio, and for five years was in the employ of E. E. Koch, of the same city. He brought out the J. B. Ketcham, and then went on the E. S. Tice, of Bay City, owned by McCormick Bros., remaining two seasons. He then spent the season of 1895 on the steam barge Saginaw, that being his last boat and his last sailing, the Captain having died April 29, 1898.

On March 26, 1856, he was married to Miss Philomine Corbin, of Detroit, a sister of Capt. J. L. Corbin, a well-known lake master. Captain and Mrs. Peltier had seven children, and out of the seven but the four mentioned below are living: Mary Olive, who married B. St. James, of Ann Arbor; Mary Angeline, who married F. Lingeman, of Detroit; Adolphus J., a physician, of Detroit, who married Miss Rose Siereiter; and Mary Hattie, who still resides at her father's home, No. 790 Monroe avenue, Detroit. Mary Philomena, the oldest child, died when but a babe of three months; and Albert J. and Mary Lillie, the two youngest, died at the age of four and two months, respectively.



B.L. Pennington has had vessel interests on the lakes since 1865, and he has been an eye-witness to and an active participant in the growth of shipping up to the present day, when the tonnage on the Great Lakes has reached such magnificent proportions. In 1865, in company with J. H. Palmer, he purchased the scow Granville, and he has since owned interests in the following crafts: The schooner Comely; the brig George M. Abell; the bark David Morris; the steamer Lady Franklin; the scow Moses Gage; the steamer City of Rome; the schooner Emma C. Hutchinson; the steamer H. B. Tuttle; the schooners George H. Ely and E. A. Mayes; the steamer Anna Smith; the schooner Brightie; the steamers Spokane and George Spencer; the schooner B. L. Pennington; and the steamer C. B. Lockwood; all of the three last named he is managing owner at the present time. All the others have been lost or sold.



Newton W. Penny, more familiarly known as "Tip" Penny, a nickname given him by an uncle when quite young, was born at Henderson, lake Ontario, May 6, 1842. His father, James Penny, was an old whaler and sailed out of Portland, Maine, as master of whaling vessels for many years. He was also in the United States man-of-war Bainville, and was supposed to have been killed at the battle of Roanoke Island. His father shipped before the mast on a whaling vessel from Portland, and returned as her captain.

The great-grandfather of our subject was a soldier in Washington's army. He died about the time the war of 1812 broke out, and his eldest son, Miles (great-uncle of our subject), migrated from the State of Delaware to the town of Henderson, Jefferson Co., N.Y., at that time known as Salsbury's Mills, which were then situated on Stony creek. He there engaged in business as a country merchant. When the war of 1812 began he enlisted in the same, and helped build the ship New Orleans, which stood so many years in Sacket's Harbor.

Amos Penny (grandfather of Newton W. Penny), was a hunter and trapper, and also cleared a farm on Stony creek, on which he lived and died. James Penny, father of our subject, married Elvira White, his cousin, her father and his mother being brother and sister. She was daughter of James White, who migrated from Delaware about the same time as the Pennys. James White was a carder and started a mill on Stony creek, which still stands there and is used as a gristmill to-day. James White's sister, Sally White, married Captain Pickron, of salt-water fame, who after the war of 1812 started to build lake schooners at Sacket's Harbor. Among the first he built was the schooner Saltello, and his wife's sister's children - Foster, Burton, Alburto, and James - all took positions on her, the first as mate, Burton before the mast, Alburto as cook, and James as second mate. The Welland canal opened about that time, and two men by the name Smith and Bishop having started a distillery near Henderson, they loaded the Saltello with whisky, bound for Chicago; when they reached Welland canal, however, Captain Pickron found the schooner too large to enter the locks, and the misfortune drove him insane, he immediately cutting his throat. The Penny boys sent word to their aunt by stage coach asking what they should do with the schooner. Her reply was "Proceed at one to Chicago with Cargo." Neither of them had ever been to Chicago, nor knew the route there, but Foster Penny took command and set out for Chicago which place they were over a month in reaching. The vessel was 500 tons burden, and there was not water enough in the Chicago harbor to admit the vessel at that time, so they took their cargo ashore one barrel at a time in their yawl boat. They loaded the vessel with grain and landed it at Oswego, it being the first grain unloaded there from Chicago. Captain Pickron was involved in debt, and his creditors seized the vessel, which was sold to Capt. George Westcott, who retained the Penny boys in their former positions. Burton Penny was later master on the Western Transportation Company's boats for twenty-five years, and was in the steamer Idaho for fifteen consecutive years.

Newton W. Penny, the subject of this sketch, had but two winters of schooling, and his education was so meager that when he went into the Civil war, at the age of twenty-one years, he could neither read or write, and was never able to do either until after his marriage. After the death of his mother, his grandmother took care of him until he was eleven years of age, and from that time until he went to the war he lived on a farm with James Pettengille. He enlisted November 28, 1861, in Company E, Ninety-fourth New York Volunteers, at Sacket's Harbor, served until 1865, and was discharged and mustered out at St. Louis. Returning to Henderson, he was married, January 7, 1866, to Sarah E. Howard, and they have two children - Josie S. and Edna M. In the spring after their marriage they went to live on a farm for a couple of years. In the spring of 1869 Mr. Penny began life on the lakes as fireman on the propeller Arabia with James Graham as chief engineer, and remained in that berth seven years. He was oiler on the Vanderbilt for the season of 1877, and in 1878 he obtained chief's papers for one hundred tons to run the engine of the barge Petronell, owned at Henderson, remaining on her until November of that season, when she went ashore at Amherst island, near Kingston, Lake Ontario.

From that time Mr. Penny was fireman, oiler, and second engineer, respectively, on various steamers until the spring of 1886, when he was made chief of the Waverly, and was on her all that season. In 1887 he fitted on the Russia, and was four months in the Northerner as second. In 1888 he was fireman for the American Express Company at Chicago, part of the years, and in 1889 was second engineer of the Jewett, of the Union line, until July 4, when he was transferred to the Foley, which later burned off Charlotte. For the balance of that season he was in the City of Fremont, Mark Hopkins and Schoolcraft respectively. In 1890 he was in the Boston and City of Glasgow, and finished the season as chief of the Columbia, an excursion boat out of Buffalo. In 1891 he was chief of the Island Belle, and was second on the Lackawanna one season thereafter. He next worked a year in the Potter building as engineer, and in 1894 he was employed part of the time in Dempsey's machine shop, fitting out the yacht Morgan; he also acted as second engineer of the Robert Mills part of the season, and then took the position of second engineer of the Arctic, which sunk off the harbor of refuge known as Sand Beach, Lake Huron, after he had been aboard of her fifteen days. He finished that season as oiler on the Saranac. In January, 1895, Mr. Penny became chief engineer of the R.G. Dunn building, but was compelled to resign his position because of ill health. On October 15, 1896, he accepted the position of night watchman of the White building, where he is now employed. Mr. Penny has been a member of the Modern Woodmen of America for a year and a half, and has been a member of Richardson Post No. 254, G.A.R., four years.



Frank Perew, nephew and namesake of the famous veteran vessel owner of the Great Lakes, is a son of John Perew, a blacksmith by trade, who was formerly a resident of Cleveland, Ohio. He (John Perew) was born in France, and married Margaret Hart, of De Kalb, Ill., who survives him. He was engineer on the lakes for about eighteen years, and died in 1875.

Frank Perew, the subject of this sketch was born in Cleveland, Ohio, February 15, 1846. His education was, obtained in Cleveland and Asthtabula, and at the age of thirteen years he shipped as cabin boy on the propeller T.U. Bradbury. His next employment was as greaser on the tug William G. Fargo, owned by Capt. Frank Perew, his uncle, and which was subsequently sold in New York. In 1866 and 1867 Mr. Perew was chief engineer of the canal tug Ontario, of Kingsman's line; in 1868 he went to Cleveland and was engineer of the harbor tugs S. S. Coe and W. B. Scott for four seasons, returning the following spring to Buffalo, where he engineered canal tugs in the harbor for three seasons. On July 27, 1875, the tug William R. Crowell was launched at Buffalo, and he was her engineer for five consecutive seasons. During 1880-81 he was second engineer of the propeller Fountain City and in 1882, was chief of the John B. Lyon, Australasia, Henry Chisholm, and Robert A. Parker, from that time until 1896 serving in the same capacity on the City of London, John C. Pringle, Oscoda, Nebraska, Birckhead, Progress, Western and others. During the latter season he was chief engineer of the steamer Topeka. For season of 1897 he was on the excursion boat Columbia and on the Henry Chisholm; for season of 1898 also on the Columbia.

In 1872 Mr. Perew was united in marriage, at Buffalo, to Delia Golden, and they have two daughters; Margaret G. and Estella May. The family residence is in Buffalo, New York.



The great number of vessels and the diversity of rig and name on which Capt. Andy Peters has sailed in the various capacities of master, mate, wheelsman and seaman will make this biography interesting to all the older sailor men. The Captain was born at Cape Vincent, N. Y., in 1839, and in 1864 was married to Miss Sarah Shares, of Clayton, same State. Ten years previously, in 1854, he commenced his experience as seaman on the sloop Gull, Captain Fuller, this being followed by service on other vessels in the order named. In 1855 he was appointed master of the sloop Odd Fellow, boating cordwood for the use of steameres trading down the St. Lawrence river, and plying to Ogdensburg and alternate ports in Canada with mowing machines and other agricultural implements. He was also master of the Sloop Anna Frances this season. In 1856-57 he was mate of the schooner Northerner, Captain Desbrough, which ran between Oswego and Ogdensburg and down the St. Lawrence, trading at ports on both sides. In 1857 he was seaman on the schooner Flying Cloud, of Clayton, with Captain Bowland, which boat went ashore October 18, in a northwest gale on Presque Isle; she was taken off and went into dry dock at Detroit, at which port she was subsequently loaded with flour and wheat for Ogdensburg; in 1859 she traded between Chicago and Ogdensburg.

In 1860 Mr. Peters became seaman on the schooner Stephen A. Douglas, Captain Turner, and the Ostrich. In 1861 he was seaman on the schooner Willard, Capt. John Tyler; 1862-63, second mate of the schooner Montezuma, Capt. J. Millen; 1864, seaman of the Clayton Bell; 1865, mate under Captain Panford, of the schooner Reindeer; 1866-67, mate of the Mediator, Captain Carry; 1868, mate of the schooner Brooklyn, Captain Tracey; 1869, second mate of the schooner Frank D. Barker, Capt. William Reese, 1870, mate of the schooner Monticello, Captain P. Ryan; 1872, master of the schooner Tom Martin; 1873, mate of the schooner Montcalm; 1874, mate of the schooner Mont Blanc; 1876, mate of the steamers Maine, Capt. Ira Bishop, and Lowell, Captain Berow, and second mate of the schooner Marie Scott, Captain Carter, for one trip to Oswego. Thence returning home he shipped as wheelsman on the propeller City of Toledo, Captain Knapp; in 1877 he was mate of the City of Concord. Capt. H. Brown, owned by Chamberlin. The boats of this line were tied up part of the season, and Captain Peters shipped as second mate on the steamer St. Albans, Captain Knapp. In 1878 he became mate of the steamer City of Concord. Captain Rolow, which traded most of the winter between Chicago and Ludington, making seven trips in January. In 1879 he was mate of the schooner Mont Blanc; 1880, second mate of the schooner Negaunee, Captain Mulholland, one trip; second mate of the steamer Superior, Captain Stone, and mate of the schooner Pelican, Capt. P. Donohue, three trips, being second mate the balance of the steamer City of New York, Capt. John Connors, 1881, mate of the schooner Pelican two trips, then on the schooner Queen City the balance of the season; during the winter he was employed in the Radcliffe shipyard.

In 1882 the Captain served as mate of the Queen City and the steamer Keystone; in 1883 he was mate two trips on the schooner Robert Rhodes, Captain Green, and for the balance of the season was engaged in the Radcliffe shipyard. In 1884 he was second mate on the steamer J.S. Fay, Captain Holmes; 1885, second mate of the steamer E.B. Hale, Captain Holmes, two trips, and second mate of the steamer Graves, Capt. Dick Millen, which was lost on the North Manitoulin, but Captain Peters was not aboard. In 1886 he was mate on the schooner Ishpeming part of the season and of the schooner Guiding Star, Capt. Billy Griffin, to the close of navigation; in 1887 he helped to fit out the Monterey in the spring and worked in the Radcliffe shipyard; in 1888 he was second mate of the Iron Cliff one trip and with Capt. Sid Millen on the Iron Chief three trips; in 1889 he was watchman on the steamer, Joliet, Capt. E.H. Millen, part of the season; 1890, mate of the Andrew J. Smith and J.H. Averill; 1891, watchman on the steamer Henry Chisholm part of the season and returned home sick. He worked in Grover's sail loft during the winter, and in the spring became mate of the steamer St. Louis, Capt. W.S. Carloss. In 1893 he was second mate of the Fedora, Captain Fick, laid her up at Erie July 4, fitted her out again and made two trips. In 1894; he was wheelsman in the steamer Colonial, Captain Stover, till August. In 1895 he shipped in the Quito, but did not sail, and later he shipped in the steamer Michael Groh, Capt. Vick Bonah, towing the Atwater, which was lost on the Manitoulin during the heavy gale on Lake Huron where the Africa and all hands were lost. The Michael Groh blew a soft plug out, and they were forced to pull the fire on her, making for Cheboygan. She was loaded with cedar posts for Detroit, but while on the St. Clair river, en route, her steam-chest burst, and she was towed to her destination. In 1896 Captain Peters became second mate on the Robert Wallace, transferring to the Alcona, Capt. George F. Brock, where is now keeping ship.



Captain Harvey Peters has the distinction of having commanded the second largest schooner on the lakes, owned by Capt. James Corrigan, of Cleveland. The Amazon has a capacity of 6,000 tons on a draft of 17 ½ feet, and is handled by Captain Peters with good judgment. Previous to his appointment to the Amazon he had been a successful master of schooners for many years.

Captain Peters is the son of Joseph and Annie (Carr) Peters, and was born in Vermilion, Ohio, on July 8, 1860. His father was a patriot of the war of the Rebellion, and served with honor four years. He enlisted, in 1861, in Company I, Eleventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and participated with his regiment in the battles of Hawk's Nest, Greeley's Bridge and Princeton, W. Va.; Bull Run Bridge, Va.; Frederick, South Mountain and Antietam, Md; Hoover's Gap, Tullahoma, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, and Mission Ridge, Tenn.; Ringgold, Buzzard's Roost and Resaca, Ga. After the close of the war he was honorably discharged on June 11, 1865, and returned to his home in Vermilion, to which place he had removed from Ogdenburg, N.Y., about the year 1855, being the owner of a fine tract of land now occupied by the Lake Shore depot. On his return home from military service he engaged in getting out ship timber, and furnished that which was used in the construction of Capt. Philip Minch's fleet of vessels.

Captain Harvey Peters, the subject of this sketch, improved his opportunities of obtaining a public-school education in Vermilion, and in 1875 he shipped as boy on the scow Ida J. Root, trading between Marblehead and Port Clinton, closing the season on the scow Malissa, with Captain Fetterley. The next year he went to work in a brickyard at home, but this occupation not agreeing with his marine proclivities, he ran away from home, went to Canada and shipped on the schooner Abercorn, carrying timber between Bay City and Kingston. In the spring of 1876 he joined the schooner M.L. Breck as boy, and soon went before the mast, and in the fall was promoted to mate's berth. The next year he shipped before the mast on the schooner James R. Benson, staying by her three seasons. In the spring of 1880 he was appointed second mate on the schooner Siberia. She went ashore above Long Point, on Lake Erie, the next season, the crew taking to the rigging. After twenty-three hours of exposure they were rescued by the lifesavers, and taken to Port Rowan lighthouse. When the sea went down they returned and stripped the schooner.

In the spring of 1882 Captain Peters was appointed mate on the schooner Grimsby, plying between Quebec and Lake Superior ports and Tonawanda in the lumber trade. His next berth was on the Thomas P. Sheldon as mate, followed by a season each on the schooner Golden Fleece and Ishpeming. In the spring of 1888 he came out as mate on the Ishpeming, but closed the season on the schooner Saveland. He then entered the employ of Capt. William S. Mack as mate of the schooner Moonlight, and sailed for him nine years in various capacities, as occasion required, until the close of the season of 1897, with the exception of part of a season, when he was second mate on the steamer Gilcher. He left her in Buffalo just previous to her last, fatal, trip, when she was lost with all hands. During the time he was with Captain Mack he was mate of the schooner Moonlight three seasons, second mate of the steamer C.H. Kershaw, master of the Annie M. Ash two seasons. It was in the spring of 1898 that he was appointed master of the schooner Amazon, one of the largest carriers on the lakes, giving universal satisfaction to the owner, and in recognition of his ability as a master was transferred to the Australia October 8, 1898. This boat is owned by the same firm owning the Amazon.

Socially, the Captain is a Master Mason, and a member of the Order of Select Knights.

On January 17, 1880, Captain Peters was wedded to Miss Martha A., daughter of Alex M. Morrison, of Ogdensburg, N.Y., formerly of Port Dalhousie, Ont. The children born to this union are Carrie M., Viola and Harvey Lawrence. The family residence is at No. 1053 Lorain street, Cleveland, Ohio.



Captain P. Petersen has had considerable knowledge of salt water sailing in addition to his experience on the Great Lakes. He was born July 27, 1865, at Sandefjord, Norway, the son of Peter Petersen, a farmer of that place, who never came to America. The Captain sailed seven years on the ocean previous to his removal to this country, visiting East Indies, Germany, Russia, Holland, Sweden and South America. On his arrival in the United States he settled in Cleveland, soon afterward resuming marine life on the lakes, and he continued to follow that occupation up to the present time. He first went before the mast on the Speedwell, transferring from that boat to the Francis Pond and Zach Chandler in the same capacity. He then shipped on the Henry A. Kent as second mate and later became mate, remaining on her four years in all, after which he was on the William Home. >From this boat he went to the Bradley line as mate on the Adriatic, following which he sailed the Alva Bradley, upon which he was in command when she was lost, August 13, 1894, on Lake Michigan. From this time he was master of the Moravia for one and a half years, and from her came to the John Scott Russell, upon which he is in command at the present time.

Captain Petersen was married in July, 1892, to Miss Matilda Nelson, of Cleveland, and they have one child, Frances Matilda.



Captain John Decatur Peterson is a steamboat master who has the esteem of all lake mariners. He is a man of good purpose and of strict integrity, and who has by close application to his duties attained to the command of one of the good steamboats on the lakes, the J. C. Lockwood. It has been the pleasure of the writer of this article to have known Captain Peterson for a number of years, and he can say with truth that no more skillful or seamanlike master ever stepped aboard a steamboat.

Captain Peterson is a son of Capt. John and Ann (Lee) Peterson, and was born February 26, 1841, at Black River, Ohio. His father was for a long time master of lake vessels, among which were the schooners Rambler, Monson, Eclipse, Tartar, Wild Rover, Live Yankee, Eveline Bates, and David Provost, part of which he owned. Captain Peterson's mother was a sister of Capt. Seth Lee, whose name will be found many times by the close readers of this history.

Capt. John Decatur Peterson attended the public schools in Huron, and the business college at Cleveland two winters, after he commenced sailing. He began his lake-faring career at the age of fifteen years, and when fifteen years of age he shipped on his father's boat, the Wild Rover. In the spring of 1858 he shipped on the Eveline Bates, and the following season (1859) was appointed second mate. The schooner was chartered to take a cargo of oak plank from New Baltimore, Mich., to Liverpool. She made good weather of this voyage and after eighteen days out she arrived at Liverpool, and was then sent to the Cardinas, Cuba, with merchandise, which she discharged and went light to New Orleans. At this time freights were dull, and she laid in New Orleans four weeks. She returned to the lakes in 1861.

In the spring of 1860 Captain Peterson was appointed mate of the schooner Surprise, with Capt. Hugh Morrison, and remained on her a full season. In 1861 he was made mate of the schooner Cape Horn, and the following season mate on the schooner Eveline Bates, which his father sailed. In the spring of 1863 he was appointed master of the schooner Wings of Morning, and in 1864-65 master of the schooner George D. Dousman; in 1866 master of the bark DeSoto; in 1867 master of the schooner Charles Wall; 1868, master of the schooner King Fisher; 1869 master of the Charles Wall; 1870, master of the schooner David Stewart, in which he continued until the close of the season of 1880.

In the spring of 1881 Captain Peterson was appointed master of the steamer Columbia (the construction of which he had superintended), plying between Buffalo, Chicago and Duluth. On July 27, 1889, he took command of the new steamer J. C. Lockwood, which had also been built under his supervision, and has sailed her up to the present writing, giving satisfaction to all parties. In both the Columbia and the Lockwood the Captain owns a large interest. Captain Peterson was in the employ of Mr. J. C. Lockwood for twenty-seven years, and has always been considered one of the most reliable masters. Mr. Lockwood died in the fall of 1892, and in the spring of 1893 Captain Peterson was made manager of the steamer J. C. Lockwood. Two years later she was sold to F. B. Case, of Norwalk, Ohio, and one year later, 1896, she was sold to George W. Brown, but by reason of his residence in New York City, Mr. Brown was unable to give the steamer the attention required; he still retained Captain Peterson as his manager, which position he has held since 1893. This shows a confidence of which Captain Peterson may well feel proud.

He is a member of the Ship Masters Association and carries Pennant No. 329. He is also a Chapter Mason (since 1866), and is a charter member of Marks Lodge of Master Masons, of Huron, Ohio. His Chapter is No. 72, Sandusky, Ohio.

In 1862 Captain Peterson was united by marriage to Miss Eulalia C. Benschoter, of Huron. The children born to this union are Carlin E., William D., Eva R., Bessie A., Jennie B., Hiram H., and Walter. The family homestead is in Huron, Ohio.



Captain Peter Peterson, master of the schooner Emily B. Maxwell has been a seafaring man all his life, having obtained an extensive experience on both salt and fresh water. His father followed the same avocation, and was a native of a country that has been noted for its hardy sailors.

Captain Peterson was born in Sweden in 1866, the son of Mons and Engar (Jenson) Peterson, both natives of Sweden. Mons Peterson was in early life a fisherman and later commanded a coaster on the shores of Sweden, remaining a shipmaster until his death in 1894; his widow still resides in Sweden. Our subject was a boy of fifteen when he went before the mast, sailing from the port of Cimbrishamn, Sweden, along the coasts of the Baltic and North seas, and England. After three years on the seas young Peterson, in 1884, came to Chicago, and here he continued the life of a mariner, begun in his native land. He shipped in that year on the schooner Radical, and by degrees worked steadily up until he became master of the Radical, remaining on that boat seven years in various capacities. For two seasons he was shipmaster of the schooner Mystic. In 1894 he was appointed master of the schooner Emily B. Maxwell, and has ever since held that command. The Maxwell is owned by Mrs. J.P. Mullin, of Chicago, and has been in commission since 1880.

During the season of 1896 Captain Peterson met with a collision in the Straits of Mackinac. The Maxwell was struck by the schooner Col. Ellsworth and damaged slightly. The Maxwell at the time was loaded with stone, and aboard was the family of the master, and Captain Peterson was at first considerable alarmed on that account, but soon learned that the Ellsworth was the greater sufferer of the two and she soon sank. Captain Peterson rescued the crew and took them ashore. The Maxwell is a three-mast schooner, and is one of the finest models on the lakes as one of the fastest of her class. During the summer of 1897 Captain Peterson made one of the fastest trips on record. He took a cargo of corn from Chicago to Sarnia, Can., and unloaded her, then loaded her with cedar at Alpena and returned to Chicago in nine and one-half days.

Captain Peterson seems destined to experience eventful trips on the Maxwell, all of them to his credit. In the fall of 1897, the boat was chartered by a Chicago man to go Collingwood for a cargo of lumber, but insisted that he himself be given the command. The owner consented, and Captain Peterson accompanied the new master as mate. On arriving in Collingwood, the captain of the vessel showed himself in his true light by passing himself off as the owner of the vessel and securing several hundred dollars on false pretenses -giving the ship's papers as security - and left for other places. Mate Peterson cleverly outwitted the Canadian firm, after the owners had wired him to take charge of the vessel, secured clearance papers, and under cover of night sought American waters, landing at Alpena, Mich., where he told his story to the customs house officers. He was assured he had acted wisely and well, and the owner of the Maxwell was congratulated on having a skipper so true to his trust. Captain Peterson is regarded as one of the efficient and representative ship masters of the Great Lakes.

In 1890 Captain Peterson was married in Chicago to Miss Helen Hanson, a native of Norway. To this union were born three children, two of whom, Esther and Ruth, are now living.



Captain Peter Peterson, master and half owner of the large fore-and-aft schooner Winnie Wing, is one of the oldest and best known captains plying on the Great Lakes, having braved many of the worst storms since his career as captain, thus showing his ability and skill in handling a vessel. He has prospered in his calling, which he followed from boyhood, and which was in a way inherited from his forefathers.

Captain Peterson was born in a small town of Fredericka, Denmark, in the year 1839, being one of four sons born to Peter and Cairn Nelson. Peter Nelson was a fisherman, and followed that occupation in Denmark through life. His son, Peter, in early life, turned his attention to sailing, and at the age of fifteen went before the mast, sailing from Denmark on coast vessels plying the Baltic Sea, in which capacity he served seven years. In the winter of 1861 he took passage at Hamburg, Germany, on the ship John Bertram, and set sail for New York. From there he went to Chicago, arriving in March, and at once began his career as sailor on the lakes, sailing before the mast on the schooner O. Hayden for about one-half the season; he then shipped on the Metropolis for the balance of the year. During the season of 1862 he was on the schooner Three Bells, and in 1863 on the schooner Manitou, Walrus and Marcon. In 1864 he went to New York, where he took passage on the steamer Morning Star, going to Havana, New Orleans and back to New York. Later he returned to Chicago, and in 1865 sailed on the schooner Triumph, which was lost at the North pier during the early part of the season. He then shipped on the schooner Planet, and in the fall of that year made a visit to his old home in Denmark, crossing the ocean on the steamer Allemania. Returning in 1868 he sailed on the schooner Sonora as mate, and in the same capacity for a part of the season of 1867. In 1868 he was mate of the schooner Beloit; 1869 he sailed on the Minnie Corlett as master, remaining with her until 1872, when he purchased an interest in the Winnie Wing, which he still sails. For more than a quarter of a century he has been in command of this vessel, a record that would be difficult to surpass. The Winnie Wing was formerly engaged in the grain trade, but is now mostly carrying lumber. He also owns half interest in the schooner Apprentice Boy, in partnership with Capt. John Peil, purchasing it about 1889. In 1868 Captain Peterson was married to Miss Anna Miller, and to them five girls (all of whom are dead) and two boys were born. Peter, the eldest son, is married and resides in Chicago, his occupation being that of a bookkeeper; Thomas J. is following in the footsteps of his father, and has for the past four years sailed as mate of the Winnie Wing.

In 1879 the Captain's wife died, after a protracted illness of several years, and two years later he married his second wife, Miss Bertha Rathke, a native of Germany. Two children blessed this union, but died while yet in their infancy.

In the winter of 1896-97 Captain and Mrs. Peterson visited their old homes in Denmark and Germany, respectively, and passed a couple of months among their old friends and acquaintances very pleasantly.

The Captain is in every sense of the word a self-made man, and has now for thirty-seven years sailed out of Chicago. He has the record of towing more spars across the lake than did any of his contemporaries. Besides his interests in vessel property, he owns a three-story brick store and a residence on Clifton avenue and a three-story brick flat on Garfield avenue, Chicago.



Something of the old Viking blood must flow in the veins of this hardy son of Norway, who is known all around the Great Lakes as an able and fearless seaman. His long career as a captain on various vessels has been marked by unusual sucess, as he has never met with a collision or other serious accident; while his enterprise and energy have also been shown in the building and equipment of some of the finest and fastest boats on the lakes.

He was born February 10, 1835, in Hardinger, Norway, and is the third who, as eldest son in his generation, has held the name of Peter. Grandsire Peter Peterson was a farmer by occupation, and Peter Peterson, the father, carried on the shoemaker's trade in connection with the management of a farm. The latter married Miss Boletta Halverson, and had the following children: Peter, our subject; Thomas, a blacksmith at Green Bay, Wis.; Haver, a shipbuilder at the same place, who makes a specialty of constructing cabins; Ole, a prosperous farmer on the old homestead in Norway; Lars, deceased, who was a baker by occupation; Boletta, now Mrs. Anderson, of Chicago, and Elizabeth, who resides in Iowa.

Captain Peterson (the junior Peter) attended the public schools of his native place during boyhood, and although his opportunites were not of the best he managed to secure a good practical education to which his subsequent reading has added. As a boy he showed a love for the water, and he gained some excellent experience in the fishing boats at his home; while later he secured employment on larger vessels engaged in the coasting trade, and spent two or three years in that work. In 1853 he came to America, landing in New York and on July 20th of that year he arrived at Chicago, where he shipped before the mast on the brig St. Louis for the remainder of the season. In the following spring he shipped for three months on the schooner Wyoming, under Captain Sullivan. Later he was employed on various boats, including the schooner Yeagree; the schooner Trowbridge; the Kitty Grant; the Josephine Lawrence, in which he spent some time before the mast; the Eleanor, under Captain Henderson, and the bark America, under Capt. Owen Davis, in which he spent three seasons, being promoted during the last year to the post of second mate. In 1862 he formed a partnership with Mr. Wilson and Mr. Gunderson assuming the position of captain. In the fall they sold the vessel, and our subject, with Captain Gunderson and Lambert Nau, built the schooner Mary Nau, which they ran during the summer of 1863, with our subject as captain. During the next season Captain Gunderson had charge, and in 1865 Captain Peterson again took the post of captain. The vessel, was engaged in the lumber trade, and proved a successful investment; but in the fall of 1865 our subject sold his interest to Lars Olsen. He then built the Libbie Nau in partnership with Lambert Nau, taking a one-third interest, and for five years following he ran this vessel in the grain and lumber trade. In 1872 he and his partner built the schooner City of Green Bay, without disposing of the Libbie Nau, however, and during that season Captain Peterson had charge of the new boat. In 1873 they built the Anna M. Peterson, one of the largest schooners then on the lakes, and one which became known throughout shipping circles as remarkable swift. From 1874 to 1884 Captain Peterson sailed this boat, but on the death of his partner the vessel was sold in connection with the settlement of the estate. He then bought the schooner F. A. George, of the Union Steamboat Company, in partnership with Frederick Hurlbut, of Green Bay, each taking a one-half interest, and after sailing her for five years the Captain sold out and spent a season on shore. In 1890 he and Captain Albright purchased the steamer T. S. Christie from A. L. Thompson, of Detroit, Mich., Captain Peterson taking a two-thirds interest and his partner the remainder, and since that date he has sailed this boat every season.

The Captain is popular socially, and in addition to his membership in the Ship Masonic fraternity, in which he has reached the Knight Templar's degree. In 1860 he was married at Green Bay, to Miss Joanna Van Denboomen, who was born in Outricht, Holland, and came to this country with her parents when nine years old. Captain and Mrs. Peterson have ten children, a family of which any parent might well be proud: William, the eldest, residing at Hammond, Ind.; Cornelius E. a locomotive engineer, lives at Green Bay; Peter J. is foreman of the Chicago & North Western round house at Chicago; Louis L., a locomotive engineer; George W. and Harold M., students; and the daughters are: Joanna B., Christine B., Ida., and Annie Marie, all residing at home.



Louis Pfohl & Son carry on a large business in the purchasing of salvage, especially flour and lumber. In this operation they have handled more than 20,000 barrels of flour in a single season, and millions of feet of lumber. A sketch of their transactions will give a glimpse of not a few of the worst wrecks on the lakes during the past ten years. The firm was founded in 1888, the father having previously been connected with John Kennedy and others in the wet grain trade. It appears to have been in 1890 that the notable salvages began, though there was business enough before that. In April of that year the steamer Chenango burned and went down in Lake Erie off Erie, Penn., and next month the firm pumped out her cargo of wheat. She was afterward raised and named the Lizzie Madden. In the fall the steamer Passaic foundered off Dunkirk, and the firm bought the lumber lost off her and her consorts, the Elma, Hattie and Superior, securing in all about 500,000 feet of lumber. During the same fall they bought and saved the deck load of the barge Tailor, which was lost off Barcelona, Lake Erie. In the fall of 1892 the steamer Newburg was lost on the Canadian shore of Lake Erie, nine miles west of Long Point light, going ashore on Long Point, and the firm bought both boat and cargo, which consisted of flour and pig iron. It was late in the season, and the last of the cargo was not taken out until December. The lighter used was the little Canadian steamer barge A.H. Jennie. The amount of persistence and calculation necessary to gather and manage a force of men on a lone shore, with no shelter and no road, can hardly be understood by anyone who is not in the business. In the great storm of October 1893, the steamer Dean Richmond went down off Dunkirk with all her crew, but her cargo of flour came ashore. The same year the Codorus sank in a collision at Duluth, and they also purchased her 8,000 barrels of flour; next year the cargo of ties and telegraph poles lost by the steamer Seattle in going ashore at Rondeau; there was flour from the steamer W.H. Stevens; remains of the cargo of the Northern Wave, which went ashore off Sand Beach; flour from the cargo of the China, jettisoned on Point Betsey, Lake Michigan, and the coal cargo of the F.W. Wheeler, which was lost near Chicago. The season of 1895 was a disastrous one. The firm took flour thrown off the steamer I.W. Nicholas off Caribou island, and when the J.D. Ketcham and consort Montgomery scattered fifty-five cars of lumber along the Canadian shore of Lake Huron, opposite Blackwell, that was also saved. These are a few of the salvage operations successfully carried on by the firm. Sometimes a bargain is made with the underwriters of lost cargo, and it disappears before an expedition can reach it, sometimes the task to collect barrels of flour floating about on the lake. There is adventure and usually any amount of hardship in the business. In 1896 there were no great losses on the lakes, the list of disasters being made up principally from the rakings the steel boats sustained in the shallow inter-lake passages, so that the firm did less business than usual. The beach patrolling and expeditions by water in search of lost cargo are now mainly superintended personally by George W. Pfohl, the junior member, whose energy and general business capacity makes him a valued assistant to his father.

Louis Pfohl was born in Syracuse, N.Y., March 10, 1833, and at the age of five came with his parents to Buffalo, where he has since lived. His first engaged in the flour and feed business, and then entered the grocery trade, buying wet grain at the same time, and he subsequently gave up the grocery for the grain trade. Mr. Pfohl wedded Marie J. Bucher, of Syracuse, whose parents came to America from Paris on the same vessel that brought LaFayette. George W. Pfohl was born in Buffalo February 22, 1868, and is a graduate of the commercial department of Canisius College. At the age of fifteen he went into the grain trade on Change on his own account, joining his father in the present firm five years later.